Wednesday, September 15, 2010

IBN AL-FARID

Ibn Al-Farid dan Ibn Arabi adalah teman sezaman. Dua guru tasawuf Arab yang terkenal pada abad 13. Ibn Arabi adalah kelahiran Sepanyol yang menuangkan pengetahuan dan pengalaman mistiknya kedalam beberapa syair dan kedalam prosa yang mengalir tanpa putus-putus. Ibn Al-Farid pula adalah penyair cendekiawan yang lemah lembut dari Kairo yang hidup menyendiri di Bukit Muqattam dan kemudian selama lima belas tahun di Hijaz, akhirnya kembali ke kota kelahiran nya dan meninggal pada 1235 iaitu lima tahun sebelum Ibn Arabi meninggal di Damaskus.

Ibn Al-Farid menurunkan pengalaman-pengalaman mistiknya kedalam jumlah kecil sajak-sajak pujian dalam bahasa Arab yang indah dan luar biasa dengan gaya puisi klasik Arab. Corak dan gayanya lebih merupakan karya seorang seniman yang sangat kritis menata permata-permata yang paling indah dan paling terpilih daripada buah pertama ilham keilahian. Orang akan bertanya-tanya bagaimana sajak-sajak itu dapat dihasilkan dalam keadaan yang sangat gairah. Menurut bentuk dan isi, sajak-sajak nya itu sempurna bahasa dan gaya Arab nya, sajak-sajak itu memperagakan kegemaran orang Arab terhadap permainan kata dan berbicara tentang kasih. Yang Mutlak dalam istilah yang diambil dari tradisi pra-Islam, menyebut-nyebut kekasih dengan nama wanita seperti Laila dan Salma.



Dari Diwan kecil Ibn Al-Farid, dua sajaknya sangat terkenal dan salah satunya adalah Khamriyya 'Syair Anggur' ; suatu pemerian dari minuman anggur kasih Illahi, yang diteguk oleh para kekasih sebelum buah anggur diciptakan dan memabukkan seluruh dunia. Kadang-kadang Ibn Al-Farid sampai kepada kelembutan dan kemurnian citraan sehingga sajak-sajaknya menyentuh hati :
Setiap anggota badanku melihatnya, meski ia tak hadir disisiku, dalam setiap zat yang halus, lembut, jernih dan bahagia.
Dalam nada kecapi dan seruling yang merdu berbaur menyatu dalam alunan yang bergetar.
Dan dalam padang rumput rusa yang hijau subur, dalam kesejukan senja dan dalam sinar-sinar cahaya pertama difajar menyinsing.
Dan dalam hujan berkabut yang turun dari awan dihamparan bunga.
Dan ketika angin sepoi-sepoi menyeret jubahnya menyebarkan kepadaku semerbak wangi harum mawar difajar yang lembut.
Dan bila ku kucup bibir piala, ku hirup anggur jernih dalam riang dan bahagia.
Aku tak terkucil dari tanah kelahiran ku bila ia ada bersamaku : fikiran ku tidak terganggu dimana pun kami berada- tempat itu tempat kelahiran ku, kalau kekasih ku ada disitu; dimana tampil bukit pasir melandai, itulah tempat ku berhenti.

Baris-baris sajak ini menyatakan perasaan kekasih yang selalu teringat akan yang dikasihi. Meski bertaburan hiasan-hiasan retoris, sajak ini membawa satu suasana yang amat romantis.

Mengenai sifat-sifat Tuhan yang dipertanyakan Ibn Al-Farid menjawab :
Mereka berkata "sifatkanlah Zat Illahiyat kepada kami!"
Kami tahu kalau anda dapat mengurai "Memanglah akan daku ilmu bagi sifat-sifatNya"
Kemurnian tanpa air, lemah lembut tanpa udara
Cahaya tanpa bara, ruh tanpa jisim
Telah mendahului segala yang baru
Yang Qadim tiada berbentuk
Dan disana...
Tiada gambar tiada lukisan
Segala sesuatu tegak berdiri...demi suatu hikmat
Dengan Zat Nya pula segalanya terhijab
Apa lagi yang tiada baginya pemahaman.


Beliau bersyair tentang kematian dirinya demi cinta :
Hendak lah anda mengambil apa yang ku tinggalkan
Dari nafas yang terakhir
Dalam kecintaan tiada lah baik
Kalau aku dalam kesihatan
Siapa yang mati demi cinta pada Nya
Niscaya hidup tinggi meninggi
Itulah setinggi-tinggi derajat
Diantara ahli kecintaan


Tentang penyajian roh dalam cinta, beliau syairkan :
Tiada bagiku selain rohku
Dan yang telah mengurbankan dirinya
Dalam kecintaan Yang dikasihi nya
Tidak mubadzir apabila kurela pada nya
Maka ia lah yang menolongku
Aduhai! akan sia-sialah
Apabila Ia enggan menolong

Apabila ku katakan ambillah!
Roh itu mengatakan keajaiban
Roh itu kepunyaan kami
Bawalah sesuatu dari sisi mu

Ku hamparkan baginya pipi
Wajahku sebagai injakan atas tanah
Jawabnya, bagimu berita suka
Anda berkenan mencium cadar wajah ku

Gunung-gunung telah hancur
Kerana kehebatan yang bertajalli
Aku menjadi Musa dimasaku
Semenjak sebahagian diriku menjadi kesemuanya
Mati itu berada dalam hidupku
Dan dalam hidupku pembunuhan diriku


Alangkah indahnya wajah yang Mulia, demi kecintaan, yang mana membuat diri ibn Al-Farid cair pada Nya :
Arahkan perhatian pada Wajah Nya
Nescaya anda temui semua keindahan
Terlukis pada Nya
Andaikan semua keindahan
Dapat menyempurnakan suatu gambaran
Lalu anda melihat Nya
Niscaya anda bertahlil dan bertakbir.


Imam Ibn Al-Farid telah berjasa mengenalkan kita mengetahui bagaimana cara mencintai dan kepada siapa cinta itu ditujukan.

Dari Wikipedia :
Ibn al-Farid or Ibn Farid ;Arabic, عمر بن علي بن الفارض (`Umar ibn `Alī ibn al-Fārid) (1181-1235) was an Arab poet. He was born in Cairo, lived for some time in Mecca and died in Cairo. His poetry is entirely Sufic, and he was esteemed the greatest mystic poet of the Arabs. Some of his poems are said to have been written in ecstasies.

The poetry of Shaykh Umar Ibn al-Farid is considered by many to be the pinnacle of Arabic mystical verse, though surprisingly he is not widely known in the West. (Rumi and Hafiz, probably the best known in the West of the great Sufi poets, both wrote primarily in Persian, not Arabic.) Ibn al-Farid's two masterpieces are The Wine Ode, a beautiful meditation on the "wine" of divine bliss, and The Poem of the Sufi Way, a profound exploration of spiritual experience along the Sufi Path and perhaps the longest mystical poem composed in Arabic. Both poems have inspired in-depth spiritual commentaries throughout the centuries, and they are still reverently memorized by Sufis and other devout Muslims today.

Biography :
Ibn al-Farid's father moved from his native town, Hama in Syria, to Cairo where he Umar was born. Some sources say that his father was a respected farid (an advocate for women’s causes) and others say that his profession was the allocation of shares (furūḍ) in cases of inheritance. Whichever is the case, Ibn al-Farid's father was a knowledgeable scholar and gave his son a good foundation in belles lettres.

When he was a young man Ibn al-Farid would go on extended spiritual retreats among the oases, specifically the Oasis of the Wretches (Wadi al-Mustad'afin), outside of Cairo, but he eventually felt that he was not making deep enough spiritual progress. He abandoned his spiritual wanderings and entered law school studying in the shafi'i school of law.

One day Ibn al-Farid saw a greengrocer performing the ritual Muslim ablutions outside the door of the law school, but the man was doing them out of the prescribed order. When Ibn al-Farid tried to correct him, the greengrocer looked at him and said, "Umar! You will not be enlightened in Egypt. You will be enlightened only in the Hijaz, in Mecca..."

Umar Ibn al-Farid was stunned by this statement, seeing that this simple greengrocer was no ordinary man. But he argued that he couldn't possibly make the trip to Mecca right away. Then the man gave Ibn al-Farid a vision, in that very moment, of Mecca. Ibn al-Farid was so transfixed by this experience that he left immediately for Mecca and, in his own words, "Then as I entered it, enlightenment came to me wave after wave and never left."

Shaykh Umar Ibn al-Farid stayed in Mecca for fifteen years, but eventually returned to Cairo because he heard the same greengrocer calling him back to attend his funeral. Upon return, he found the greengrocer on the point of death and they wished each other farewell.

Upon Ibn al-Farid’s return to Cairo, he was treated as a Saint. He would hold teaching sessions with judges, viziers and other leaders of the city. While walking down the street, people would come up to him and crowd around him, seeking spiritual blessings (barakah) and try to kiss his hand (he would respond by shaking their hand). Ibn al-Farid became a scholar of Muslim law, a teacher of the hadith (the traditions surrounding the sayings and life of the prophet Muhammad), and a teacher of poetry.

Unlike many other respected poets of the day such as Ibn Sana al-Mulk, Ibn Unayn, Baha al-Din Zuhayr and Ibn Matruh, Ibn al-Farid refused the patronage of wealthy governmental figures which would have required him to produce poetry for propaganda, preferring the relatively humble life of a teacher that allowed him to compose his poetry of enlightenment unhampered. One time al-Malik al-Kamil, who was the Ayubbid sultan at that time, liked sone of his odes so much that he sent the poet an exorbitant amount of money and offered to build a shrine for him. Ibn al-Farid denied both the money and the offer of the shrine, choosing to trust in God to supply for his needs. His position as a teacher at the Azhar mosque allowed him to provide for his family, which included three children.
[edit] Death and Burial

Ibn al-Farid died in the Azhar mosque. He was buried in Qarafah cemetery at the foot of Mt. Muqqattam under the al-Arid mosque. The burial was postponed because the grave was not completely dug. Some said this was to “chastise him for claiming such a high status in love” while others said it was “merely the last indignity that one of God’s chosen must suffer from the contingencies of the world below.”


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***Kalau masih berpegang dengan kiasan Tuhan dan makhluk Nya sebagai'Tok Dalang dan Wayang Kulit' maka tidak akan faham apa maksud Ibn Al-Farid.***